The wisest animals Top 10
Horses (Equus caballus)
In the past, they were considered stupid beings lacking abstract thinking skills, and their biggest motivation to make any kind of effort was their herd. However, contemporary research has shown that cognitive processes in a horse brain are more complex than we think.
Their minds work actively during feeding and being in contact with other members of the herd. They can visualize two- and three-dimensional images, they learn and solve both easy and complex issues, e.g. categorize and learn concepts.
They learn best by habituation (when there is a decrease in responding to a repeated stimulus that confers no information (changes)), desensitization (reduction of anxiety reactions through gentle confrontation with the situation that causes anxiety), Pavlovian conditioning (stimulus-response), and instrumental conditioning (system of rewards and punishment). Recent research has shown that horses can learn to count to 4.